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"A whole host of books and articles have been written on the Bay of Pigs invasion, the most visible event of the secret war, but this would be like writing an account of the Battle of the Bulge while never addressing the larger issue of World War II"

-Warren Hinkle, William Turner, The Fish is Red, 1981-

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"For one thing we did know: Fidel Castro was a hero to the masses in many Latin American nations. They saw him as a champion of the downtrodden and the enemy of the privileged who, in most of their countries, controlled both wealth and governments."

- Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace 1961-

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"The policy of the United States is to encourage peaceful change in Latin America as the alternative to violent revolution"

-Central Intelligence Agency 30 April 1968-

"The record examined thus far shows that covert action programs over the last 30 years have been generally successful against weak nations and far less so against our potential enemies. In the view of many who have looked at the question, covert action has become the national means, the "functional equivalent" to use Secretary Katzenbach's phrase, for acts of deception, subversion, and violence, including instances of  warfare-   ."

- William G Miller- Staff Director, Senate Select Committee, 1975-



"Nowadays in Central America they would accuse Jesus [Christ] of being a communist in order to assure his death at the hands of the government security forces (the secret police), the death squads, or counterinsurgency military forces. "

-Padre j. Guadalupe Carney, To be a revolutionary, 1985-

El Salvador


"In particular the Soviet Bloc and terrorist organizations continue to intervene in the internal affairs of both democratic and non-democratic countries and use any means considered effective to achieve their ends. These include covert political action and propaganda and paramilitary and intelligence support programs to assist their allies and damage their opponents, including actions to subvert democratic elections, organize and support coups d'etats, terrorism, insurgencies, and spread disinformation designed to discredit the US and its allies.


While the US will not make use of most of the techniques employed by our adversaries, we must be prepared to counter such efforts and to assist our allies and friends in resisting these threats."


- Directive Number 159

Signed by Ronald Reagan 18 January 1985-



"The need for continued negotiations was due to what the Panamanians viewed as improper interpretations by the U.S. of the original treaty. These misinterpretations revolved around matters such as the sovereignty issue, the “in perpetuity” clause, flying the Panamanian flag in the Zone, the importing of third party goods into the Zone, the exclusion of Panamanian goods and services from Zone markets, and discrimination against Panamanians working in the Zone.

The U.S. on the other hand felt that the Panamanians viewed the Canal as “their meal ticket” and exploited it accordingly."

-National Archives

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